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新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎与流感有何区别? The novel coronavirus and t

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作正在全国有条不紊地进行。它与季节性流感有哪些相似和不同?让我们一起科学防控,抗击疫情。

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎与流感有何区别?              The novel coronavirus and the flu - the differences and similarities you need to know

[Photo/IC]

The novel coronavirus, which originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan and has now spread to 12 countries, has much in common with seasonal flu. They are both viral infections, share similar symptoms and - crucially - can spread from human to human. In the midst of flu season in much of the northern hemisphere, telling the difference between the two will be vital in stopping its spread.

起源于中国武汉市的新型冠状病毒已扩散至12个国家,与季节性流感有很多相似之处。它们都是病毒感染,有相似的症状,最重要的是,可以在人与人之间传播。北半球大部分地区正处于流感季节,区分两者对于阻止新型冠状病毒的传播至关重要。

coronavirus[kə,rəunə'vaiərəs]:n.冠状病毒

Are the symptoms similar to that of the flu?

新型冠状病毒感染症状与流感相似吗?

Human coronaviruses, of which there are four, can cause respiratory infections similar to flu: while many symptoms are mild, both can lead to pneumonia and become lethal. However, the novel coronavirus is more serious than a "typical influenza infection," says Ian Jones, a professor of virology at the University of Reading.

人类冠状病毒(一共有四种)可引起类似流感的呼吸道感染:虽然许多症状很轻微,但两者都可导致肺炎并致命。然而,雷丁大学的病毒学教授伊恩·琼斯说,这种新型冠状病毒比“典型的流感感染”更为严重。

"This virus appears to go further down into the lungs than would generally be the case, therefore giving you symptoms of pneumonia: the lungs becoming flooded, they don't function very well and the patient gets into breathing difficulty."

“这种病毒似乎更容易深入肺部,因此会出现肺炎的症状:肺部积水,肺功能不佳,病人呼吸困难。”

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎与流感有何区别?              The novel coronavirus and the flu - the differences and similarities you need to know

A worker checks the body temperature of a passenger at Jianguomen subway station in Beijing, Jan 28, 2020. [Photo by Wang Jing/China Daily]

Why is it more feared than the flu?

为什么它比流感更可怕?

While the mortality rates and symptoms of flu and novel coronavirus may end up being similar, humans' ability to fight off the viruses differ greatly.

虽然流感和新型冠状病毒的死亡率和症状可能很相似,但人类抗击病毒的能力却有很大不同。

Humans have naturally built up antibodies to seasonal flu and scientists have developed annual vaccines to fight it. During a pandemic, which the new coronavirus has the potential to become, "there is no immunity in the population so you have potential for a global spread," warns Jones.

人类天生就会对季节性流感产生抗体,科学家们每年都会研制出流感疫苗。琼斯警告说,这种新型冠状病毒有可能成为流行病,“人们普遍对此没有免疫力,因此有可能在全球范围内传播。”

antibody[ˈæntibɒdi]:n. [免疫]抗体

There is also a widespread familiarity with flu, which dampens concern. As with the Ebola epidemic and the Zika virus, both of which peaked in the middle of the last decade, fears around the new coronavirus are compounded due to a lack of knowledge over its nature.

人们对流感也很熟悉,这降低了人们的担忧。正如同在2015年前后达到顶峰的埃博拉病毒和寨卡病毒,由于对其性质缺乏了解,人们对这种新型冠状病毒的担忧加剧。

Is it as easy to catch as the flu?

它和流感一样容易传染吗?

Flu can spread from person to person from up to six feet away, largely caused by liquid emitted when the inflicted cough or sneeze. Those infected are usually contagious for around three days following the beginning of their illness, although this time-frame could stretch to over a week.

流感可以在相隔6英尺的人们之间传播,主要是由患者咳嗽或打喷嚏时的飞沫引起。感染者通常在发病后三天左右具有传染性,不过传染期可能会延长至一周以上。

All this and more remains a mystery in regards to the new coronavirus. To understand the virility of the outbreak, Jones urges a focus on whether or not international cases lead to secondary infections. "If they don't," he explains, "it would suggest that the virus doesn't transmit quite so well: clearly all the people on the airplane (that traveled from an infected zone) didn't get it."

而对于新型冠状病毒来说,所有这些仍然是一个谜。为了了解疫情的严重性,琼斯敦促关注国际病例是否会导致第二代传播。他解释说:“如果没有,那就意味着病毒传播力减弱:很明显,飞机上的所有人(从疫区起飞)都没有感染。”

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎与流感有何区别?              The novel coronavirus and the flu - the differences and similarities you need to know

Passengers wearing masks are seen on Subway Line 5 in Beijing on Jan 28, 2020. [Photo by Wang Jing/China Daily]

What you should do if you think you have it?

如果你认为患病了,应该怎么做?

Medical advice is similar across those countries with confirmed cases of the infection. In France, authorities are asking those who think they are infected to call an ambulance rather than visiting a hospital, where they could potentially pass on the virus. Similar advice has been issued in China and Germany.

在有确诊感染病例的国家,医嘱是类似的。在法国,当局要求那些认为自己被感染的人叫救护车,而不是去医院,因为他们可能会把病毒传给其他人。中国和德国也提出了类似的建议。

如何预防新型冠状病毒?

冬春季是呼吸道传染病高发季节,人员流动频繁增加了传染病的传播风险。为做好新型冠状病毒感染预防,北京市疾控中心提醒市民做好以下几件事:

加强个人防护

避免前往人群密集的公共场所。避免接触发热呼吸道感染病人,如需接触时要佩戴口罩;勤洗手,尤其在手被呼吸道分泌物污染时、触摸过公共设施后、照顾发热呼吸道感染或呕吐腹泻病人后、探访医院后、处理被污染的物品以及接触动物、动物饲料或动物粪便后;不要随地吐痰。打喷嚏或咳嗽时用纸巾或袖肘遮住口、鼻;加强锻炼,规律作息,保持室内空气流通。

避免接触野生禽畜

避免接触禽畜、野生动物及其排泄物和分泌物,避免购买活禽和野生动物;避免前往动物农场和屠宰场、活禽动物交易市场或摊位、野生动物栖息地等场所。必须前往时要做好防护,尤其是职业暴露人群;避免食用野生动物。不要食用已经患病的动物及其制品;要从正规渠道购买冰鲜禽肉,食用禽肉蛋奶时要充分煮熟,处理生鲜制品时,器具要生熟分开并及时清洗,避免交叉污染。

杜绝带病上班、聚会

如有发烧、咳嗽等呼吸道感染的症状,居家休息,减少外出和旅行,天气良好时居室多通风,接触他人请佩戴口罩。要避免带病上班、上课及聚会。

及时就医

从武汉等地外出旅行归来,如出现发热咳嗽等呼吸道感染症状,应根据病情就近选择医院发热门诊就医,并戴上口罩就诊,同时告知医生类似病人或动物接触史、旅行史等。

英文来源:CGTN

翻译&编辑:yaning

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